Caught in the black hole – Hoyo Negro

You could start the story like in a pitch-black fairy tale. “Once upon a time there was a young girl, barely sixteen years old. She had just given birth to her first child and after long wanderings in unknown areas she was desperately searching for water in a region where there seemed to be neither river nor lake…”.

What the young girl did then unfortunately cost her her life, even if it guaranteed her archaeological immortality. The latter not because her story is so sad, but because she died in the late Pleistocene, 13,000-12,000 years ago, at the time of the very first settlement of the American continent. The remains of the girl are thus the oldest human skeleton found in America to date.

The remains of the young woman, who was given the name Naia (nymph in Greek), were found under water in a deep cave at the end of a kilometre-long passage under water. The divers who came to her risked their lifes. Cave diving is a dangerous affair, especially if it takes place in a cenote, an underground karst cave. The archaeologists around the well-known researcher Pilar Luna, who led the operation, were mostly left behind at the cave entrance, despite their sometimes advanced diving knowledge. The girl’s bones and a whole collection of fossilized primitive animals, sloths, sabre-toothed tigers and more, which had accumulated in the cave for many thousands of years, were recovered under water by special divers and brought to the surface in meticulously prefabricated polystyrene containers. “The speleologists have attended special courses to gather information for archaeological purposes, to properly grasp the general context, to take samples, measurements, photos, videos, etc., and to meet all the expert requirements despite the complexity and dangers of the cave itself with extreme care,” Pilar Luna (INAH) told the BBC.

It has been found that the girl came from the north and had wandered for a long time before she was forced to search for water in an underground cave system in Quintana Roo, Mexico. In the area, the soil is karst and all water flows underground in extensive cave systems. These partly consist of kilometre-long corridors in absolute darkness. And they hide traps. It happens that the corridors collapse in larger caves and form a huge cave underground. A Hoyo Negro – a black hole. In such cases it can happen that the access to the cave formed through the collapse is not on the bottom but above, at the cave’s ceiling. Whoever crawls groping in the dark in search of water, falls unawares dozens of meters into the depth and never again finds the way back to the inaccessibly high exit. This happened to the poor girl from our history and many animals of prehistoric times. One after the other.

A story preserved under water

At that time the water was much lower in the caves. Animals and woman fell into the bottomless void. With the rise of the sea level, however, the cave is now completely flooded. Under water biological material preserves surprisingly well. Thus one could find out that the young girl had lost her front teeth through pregnancy, was exposed to malnutrition in her youth and had pronounced leg muscles from long hiking. From hiking throughout America, to the south.

Analyses of the human skeleton and the skeleton of a gomphothere, a kind of elephant, allowed dating and identified in the bones of Naia intact human mitochondrial ADN. It turned out to belong to D1 – a Beringish-derived sub-haplogroup. However, one of the mysteries of the ancestry of this first American remains intact. Her head and face look completely different from modern ‘natives’. Nevertheless, Naia has much in common with the few Paleo-American skulls known to science and she shares her Siberian/Bering mtDNA with modern indigenuous populations. This link between a Paleoamerican and modern Indians suggests, according to James Chatters, lead author of a study on Naia, that the morphological differences that exist between the two groups are the result of evolutionary changes that occurred after migration and within America. Naia’s tribe evolved.

Scientists have long been discussing the origins of the first settlers on the American continent. The most widespread theory – confirmed by several genetic analyses – suggests that the original immigrants crossed a land bridge that once connected Northeast Asia with present-day Alaska. Independent genetic analyses carried out in three different laboratories produced the same result here: Naia’s genetic line is only shared by Indians.

“We were able to identify their genetic lineage with a high degree of certainty,” said Ripan Malhi of the Institute of Genomic Biology at the University of Illinois, one of the laboratories involved in the study. “This shows that today’s Indians and the remains of this young woman we’re analyzing come from the same population that America once began to populate.”

Th threat of pillage

Given these groundbreaking results, it is understandable that researchers are increasingly interested in skeletons from the cenotes of Mexico. And unfortunately not only them. A particularly important old skeleton disappeared from a cenote in Yucatán in 2012. The 10,000-year-old skeleton was discovered in 2010 at the same place where another 10,000-year-old skeleton, the young man of Chan Hol, was found in 2006. The skeleton is important because research on the 2006 find, the young man of Chan Hol, indicated a common ancestry of the person with Indonesians and South Asians. The stolen skeleton is now being sought via Interpol.

Let us hope it returns to the hands of the great scientists of INAH and their associates and they can bring us new discoveries soon.

Image: Cenote (c) Gerdel

To see more about Naia including a facial reconstruction, go to the project’s website.

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